American Gem Society (AGS)
An educational institution for gemological studies that enjoys international acceptance and trains gemologists from all over the world.

Asscher-Cut Diamond
A diamond cut named after its inventor, Joseph Asscher, this is a square cut diamond with 72 facets.

This is an approximate weight with +/- 5% tolerance. It includes the variation in ring size.

Very small and tiny sketches on facet joints which fabricates white hairy lines instead of sharp crisp facet edges. Antique and other old or heavily used diamonds can have abrasions.

Acid Test
Acid test determines the purity of gold through the use of nitric acid and aqua regia.

Actual Gold Content
Actual gold content describes the amount of gold that exists in a metal object after subtracting all the alloys.

The word Diamond comes from this ancient Greek word ‘Adamas’, which means unconquerable.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals usually mixed to enhance the strength and/or appearance of a particular metal. Copper, silver, nickel, zinc etc are frequently used as alloy metals and usually are mixed with all precious metals for some specific purpose.

American Cut
Marcel Tolkowsky’s mathematically calculated ideal proportions and facet angles, to produce maximum brilliancy consistent with a high degree of fire in a round brilliant diamond or gemstone, are known as American Cut or Ideal Cut.

Anklet An anklet, also known as ankle bracelet, is a jewelry ornament worn around the ankle. Anklets are more popular in women and used as a fashion ornament.

Anniversary Band
Anniversary band is a popular type of ring usually given as a gift by husband to wife on their wedding anniversary. It contains a continuous row of diamonds or other gems of the same size and cut.

Antique Jewelry
Antique jewelry refers to jewelry which is made more than 100 years ago.

Aquamarine is a verity of mineral Beryl. This is a fascinatingly beautiful gemstone found in colors like light blue of the sky to the deep blue of the sea. The more intense the color of an Aquamarine, the more value is put on it. Its hardness makes it very tough which comes in between 7.5 to 8 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Zambia, Mozambique and USA. Its name is derived from the Latin 'Aqua' (water) and 'Mare' (sea). Aquamarine is one of the most popular and best-known gemstones.

Asterism is the star effect that appears on some gemstones. This star effect is a reflection that appears as two or more intersecting bands of light across the surface of a gem. Usually asterism is found in Ruby, Sapphire and Garnet.

The chemical symbol for gold. Au is derived from Latin word ‘aurum’ for gold.

A bail is an oval or teardrop or D shaped metal element that is attached at the top of a pendant. It allows a pendant to hang from a chain in a free form.

A band is a type of ring that possesses the same width all the way round and mainly used for wedding rings.

Bangle is circular in shape which comes in a solid form and usually worn in pairs in both hands. These bangles are generally made of metals, glass, wood, plastic etc.

Bead is a small rounded element, made from a variety of materials, with a hole through it. Beads are commonly made from stone, shell, glass or plastic

Bearded girdle
Small or tiny, numerous, hair like fractures / cracks around the girdle extending into the stone.

A facet on the Crown, or slopping surface just above the girdle of the Diamond.

Bezel Facets
On a round brilliant-cut diamond, these eight large, four-sided facets on the crown where the upper points join the table and the lower points join the girdle.

Bezel Setting
In this style of setting, a metal rim gently holds a stone in place by the girdle. The bezel setting guards the stone from any damages and yet allows light to enter which creates brilliance and sparkle.

A birthstone is nothing but a gemstone only, which is associated with the date of one’s birth and the wearing of such birthstone is considered to bring good luck and health. Certain gemstones are believed to have Supernatural powers and their relationship with planets. Many cultures originally assigned a specific gemstone to signify birth during each sign of the zodiac but over the time this tradition has been shifted from the zodiac to calendar months. Following birthstones are assigned for every calendar month. January – Garnet, February – Amethyst, March – Aquamarine, April – Diamond, May – Emerald, June – Pearl / Alexandrite / Moonstone, July – Ruby, August – Peridot / Sardonyx, September – Sapphire, October – Opal / Pink Tourmaline, November – Citrine / Yellow Topaz, December – Turquoise / Tanzanite / Zircon / Blue Topaz.

Black Diamond
A diamond with very dark color like dark gray, very dark green or truly black is referred in the trade as ‘black diamond’.

An external mark or surface imperfection on a diamond or gemstone. For example, a nick, abrasion, knot, scratch, minor crack or fissure (cavity), or a poor polish. A natural or an extra facet is also considered a blemish.

Blending is a process of smoothing rough areas of a metal piece to provide same plane or roundness and/or same surface finish.

Blue Diamond
A diamond with blue color is very rare and valuable although fluorescence diamond that shows a blue color in daylight is comparatively common.
Blue Topaz The most common form of topaz, available in light brown or colorless when mined, but turns blue when exposed to light or heat.

Body Jewelry
Jewelry designed to be worn on or in any part of the body, typically refers to belly rings, nose studs, toe rings, tongue bars etc.

Bow Tie Effect
An optical effect due to a shadowy area visible in some fancy shapes, caused by light leaking out from the bottom of the Diamond. This effect can be minimized by careful cutting using best proportions and angles.

Box Chain
A type of chain, which has wide and square links where each link resembles a box.

A bracelet is a type of jewelry, worn around the wrist. Bracelets contain gemstones, rocks, wood and other precious material and these are usually made of a variety of material, including metal, leather, cloth etc.

Bridal Jewelry
Bridal jewelry is a general term for jewelry used in the wedding ceremony. It includes wedding rings, engagement rings, gifts for the bride or groom and gifts for the best man, maid of honor, ushers, bridesmaids and others taking part in the wedding ceremony.

Bridal set
Bridal set is a combination of an engagement ring and wedding ring that often match or compliment each other.

Brilliance describes the reflections of white light returned to the eye from a diamond or gemstone. Brilliance is produced primarily when light enters through the table, reaches the pavilion facets, and is then reflected back out through the table. The major factors that affect the amount of brilliancy in a gem are refractive index, proportions, polish and transparency.

Brilliant Cut
Brilliant Cut is the most common style of diamond or gemstone cutting and it is called a brilliant cut because it is designed to maximize brilliance. The standard round brilliant cut consists of a total of 58 facets which covers 1 table, 8 bezel facets, 8 star facets and 16 upper-girdle facets on the crown; and 8 pavilion facets, 16 lower-girdle facets, and usually a culet on the pavilion, or base. Brilliant cut stones normally come in round shape, but there are modified variants in other shapes also.

A brooch is an ornamental pin with a clasp to attach it to a garment or clothing. It is made often with precious metal along with gemstones.

Brown Diamond
A diamond with attractive or vivid brown color is rare and considered as fancy colored stone.

An inclusion which consists surface crumbling and normally accompanied by tiny, root like feathers. This inclusion is usually caused by external trauma such as a knock or a blow.

Any transparent inclusion which consists a tiny crystal or a grain of a different mineral.

Buffing is the process refers to the use of grease compound in combination with wheels to produce very smooth polished surface. It is the final step in professional finishing process.

Bullion is a precious metal usually gold in form of bars containing at least 99.5% purity.

The term Carat is used as a standard unit of measurement of the weight of diamonds and most other gemstones. The word comes from the carob beans which are known for its consistent weight and was used in ancient times to measure diamonds and other gemstones. One carat (ct.) equals 200 milligrams, or 0.2 grams (1/5 of a gram), or 1/142 of an ounce. There are 100 points in a carat. If all other factors are equal, the more a diamond weighs, the more valuable it will be. It is sometimes incorrectly spelled ‘Karat’, but Karat refers only to the fineness of pure gold and gold alloys.

Diamonds are composed of carbon entirely, or almost entirely.

Casting is a widely used jewelry manufacturing process, in which a molten material such as metal, plastic or any other material is poured or forced into a hollow mold and allowed to solidify within the mold and then ejected or broken out to get a fabricated jewelry part.

A type of inclusion consisting of a large or deep opening in the diamond. It may be either internal or extending to the surface cause by cleavage or by a blow. Internal cavities may naturally contain gas, liquid, solid, a combination of two or three of these.

Center Stone
The center stone is a main stone placed in central position in a piece of jewelry item with multiple stones. In a ring with one stone only, the center stone is also called the solitaire.

Centrifugal Casting
Centrifugal casting is the process of casting in which molds are attached to the outside edge of a hollow tube. Metal in liquid form is poured into the tube and it is spun at high-speed centrifugal force that pulls the molten metal into the molds.

A statement or document issued and certified by a gemological laboratory which consists the genuineness of a diamond or other gemstone along with the quality and other characteristics.

A chain is a flexible series of links, beads or rings, generally made of metal, connected or attached into one another. Chain is a widely used jewelry item and many necklaces and bracelets are made out of small chains. Some popular types of chain include: Book chain, Box chain, Butterfly chain, Byzantine chain, Cable chain, Curb chain, Figaro chain, Marina chain, Omega chain, Rope chain and Snake chain.

Chandelier Finding
It is a type of decorative finding, often used on an earring, with a drop or drops that hangs down from the earlobe and dangles like a chandelier.

Change of Color
Sometimes diamond changes color or appears with a different color in different types of light. This is caused by selective absorption and/or transmission of the specific type of light to which the stone is exposed.

Channel Setting
A setting style or method in channel form where no metal is displayed between stones and these stones are held in only by a slight rim which runs along the edges of the channel.

A charm is a decorative jewelry item, similar to pendant or trinket, usually worn on a bracelet, necklace or earring.

Charm Bracelet
A jewelry item which contains personal charms like pendants or lockets and worn around the wrist.

Charm Hanger
A charm hanger, also known as charm holder, is a jewelry finding which can be attached to a necklace or cord with a jump ring or bail. The bottom part of the holder can be opened to add single or multiple charms.

Charm Ring
It is a ring in which charm is also attached to its ring band.

A curved break or absence of a tiny piece of a gemstone, caused by normal wear and tear, or by cutting.

Chrome Plating
Chrome plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of chromium on other metal surface mainly for giving a bright and lustrous metallic surface, which is highly resistant to tarnish.

Chromium is a lustrous, hard brittle, steel-blue metallic element which is highly resistant to corrosion and tarnishing. It is generally used in the hardening of steel alloys and the production of stainless steels.

Citrine is a verity of mineral Quartz and available in colors like light yellow, lemon yellow, amber-brown and brilliant orange. This radiant gemstone gets its name from the French word ‘Citrin’, meaning ‘Yellow’. Citrine is known as a tough gemstone with 7 points on Mohs hardness scale and with good durability. This gemstone is mainly found in South America, Brazil, Madagascar, Argentina, Russia, Scotland and Spain.

Clamp, also known as cramp, is a metal prong or claw used for gemstone settings.

Clarity is one of the four value factors of a diamond or other gemstones which describes the absence or presence of flaws inside or on the surface of a stone. Diamonds and other gemstones are graded on a scale from Flawless (no inclusions or blemishes visible under 10x magnification) to Included (eye visible inclusions or blemishes). If other factors are equal, flawless stones are most valuable.

A word used by some jewelers unofficially or informally which means flawless, or at least internal flawless.

Cleaning (Stones)
Cleaning of a diamond or a gemstone is essential to bring or maintain its shine and brilliance. At the mines, various methods are used to clean rough stones like boiling in acid etc. For domestic cleaning of diamonds and other gemstones, warm soapy water works well.

Cleaning (Casting)
Cleaning of metal casting refers to all activities that are performed to remove sand, scale and / or excess metal from the casting.

Clip is a fastening device used to hold a piece of jewelry on its place. Generally clip is used in non-pierced earrings where its two pieces are closed around the earlobe, using mechanical pressure to hold the earring in place.

Closed Setting
Closed setting is a style of setting in which back of the diamond or gemstone is not exposed and usually stone’s back is covered by metal.

A group of a number of extremely tiny white inclusions which gives a ‘cloudy’ or ‘milky’ appearance under 10X magnification. These clouds cannot be seen with the naked eye and generally does not significantly impact a gemstone's clarity grade.

Color is one of the four value factors of a diamond. Diamonds are ranked on a color scale from ‘D’ (colorless) to ‘Z’ (noticeable tint of color, typically yellow or brown). Diamonds with saturation greater than ‘Z’ color are considered Fancy Colored Diamonds such as blue, pink, purple, red etc. and are graded on a separate scale. Color is measured by tone and hue in a gemstone.

Color Grading
A system of grading diamond colors based on their colorlessness (for other than fancy diamonds) or their spectral hue, depth of color or purity of color (for fancy color diamonds) or their hue or tone (for other gemstones).

Colorless diamonds are white or transparent diamonds and promoted as the best, but only because other attractive colors are extremely rare.

Comfort Fit Ring
A ring that provides comfort to its wearer as it is curved from the inside of the shank.

This term is used for medium to low quality diamonds and opposite to fine gem quality.

Sometimes gems laboratories perform their grading by comparing one stone with another stone of known quality. This comparison is useful to consumers who are not well aware of diamond quality factors.

Composite Gemstone
It refers to a gemstone which is assembled from several pieces, often used to imitate a gem.

Conductivity is the ability of a mineral to transmit heat, electricity or sound.

Copper is a reddish-brown non-ferrous metal, which is usually considered as a base metal or alloyed with other precious metals. It is fairly soft metal with excellent conductivity of heat and electricity as well as it is very malleable and ductile. Other than jewelry, it is widely used for electrical wiring and water piping. The chemical symbol for copper is Cu.

The upper portion of a cut diamond or gemstone above the girdle which consists of a large flat area on top known as table, and several facets below it.

Crown Angle
The angle between the girdle and stone's bezel / concentric facets is known as crown angle. This gentle slope of the facets that surround the table helps to create the dispersion or fire in a stone. White light enters from the crown angles and brakes up into its spectral hues which ultimately enhance the brilliance of a stone.

Crown Height
The height or depth of the crown of a stone, above the girdle.

A cube is a rough diamond with approximately cubic shape. Gem-quality cube-shaped diamond crystals are very rare in nature and considered as collector’s items.

Cuff Bracelet
Cuff is a wide or narrow C shaped band that comes in a solid form and fits over the wrist.

Cuff link
A cufflink is an attractive fastener or clasp, to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a shirt, worn by men and women both. Cufflinks are used to link cuffs that have buttonholes on both the sides.

The smallest facet, at the bottom of most round or brilliant cut stones, is known as culet. Its purpose is to protect the tip of the pavilion from being chipped or damaged. Most modern shapes have either no culet at all, or a small or very small culet.

Cullinan, Cullinan I, Cullinan II
The Cullinan was the largest Diamond Crystal ever found with weight of 3,106 carats in the rough and was cut into 9 major stones and 96 smaller stones. Out of these 9 major stones, Cullinan I is the largest stone with 530.20 carats and Cullinan II is the second largest stone with 317.40 carats. Both of these stones are now part of British Crown Jewels.

Cultured Pearl
A pearl cultivated by an artificial process that imitates the organic process by which a natural pearl is created. An irritant such as a bead, grain of sand, or piece of mantle tissue is inserted manually into the body of a mollusk, and becomes the nucleus of a pearl once that mollusk secretes nacre to cover the irritation.

A shape of gemstone, which ranges from square to rectangular and it has rounded corners and larger facets to increase its brilliance. Cushion Cut stones are also known as "pillow cut" stones.

Cut refers to the geometric proportions and finish of a stone. It is one of the most important factors in determining diamond's or gemstone’s sparkle and brilliance. The stone should be symmetrical in all dimensions so that it will appear balanced, and so that its facets will reflect light evenly, which will provide good brilliance to stone. It is the only man-made contribution to a stone's beauty and value.

The person who cuts and polishes rough diamonds & gemstones and convert them into finished stones.

The process of cutting, grinding or polishing rough diamonds & gemstones and convert them into finished stones.

Drop Earrings
Earrings that have one part attached to the ear, and another part hanging suspended from this portion to resemble a ‘drop’.

Dangle Earrings
A dangle earring, which is available in various lengths from a centimeter or two to up to shoulders, is designed to flow from the bottom of the earlobes. It is generally attached to the ear by the use of thin wire, which goes through the earlobe and connects to it in a small hook at the back.

Jewelry designing is the process of creating, crafting, producing or rendering designs for jewelry. Jewelry designing is the preliminary step to manufacture any jewelry item. Jewelry designs are usually created or crafted by a jewelry designer, a professional who is trained in the jewelry architecture and hold functional knowledge of metallurgy and design elements such as composition and wear-ability. These designs are created on the basis of future trends and customer's taste in selected target market.

This usually means a diamond or a gemstone which has been cut too deep. This deep cut maximizes weight but sacrifices brilliance.

The density of a substance depends on both its mass and its volume. For example, lead is denser than feathers, so 1 tonne of lead will have a lesser volume than 1 tonne of feathers.

The height of a diamond or gemstone from the table to the culet which is measured in millimeters.

Depth Percentage
The depth percentage, which expresses how deep the stone is in comparison to how wide it is. In other words, the depth of the stone is divided by the average width. This depth percentage of a stone is important to its brilliance and value. The pavilion should be deep enough to allow light to bounce around inside the stone and be reflecting out to the eye at the proper angle.

Detection is the ability to identify diamond imitations, synthetics and treatments.

The width of the diamond or gemstone, as measured across the widest part of the girdle.

The word "diamond" comes from the Greek word “Adamas”, meaning "Unconquerable". Diamond is composed of carbon that crystallizes in the “cubic,” or “isometric,” crystal system. It is the hardest known substance in the world (10 on Mohs’ scale). The Diamond is uniquely resistant to damage by heat or scratching, and can be cut or polished only by another diamond. It occurs in colors ranging from colorless to yellow, brown, orange, green, blue, and violet.

Diamond Cutter
The person who cuts and polishes rough diamonds and convert them into finished diamonds.

Diamond Cutting
The process of cutting, grinding or polishing rough diamonds and convert them into finished diamonds.

Diamond Gauge
An instrument that is used to measure a diamond's length, width and depth in millimeters.

Diamond Saw
A saw used for dividing or separating diamonds.

An engraved metal object, usually of a hard metal such as steel, bronze or brass, used to strike or stamp the design on another metal object.

Drill, Drilling
Now laser is used to drill a diamond neatly for removing inclusions as well as drilling could also be done to create a diamond bead.

Durability describes a stone’s resistance power against scratches and cracks due to wear. The durability of a diamond or gemstone depends on its hardness, toughness and stability.

Very tiny rough diamonds and generally used as abrasives. It is also known as diamond powder.

Ear Nut
An ear nut is a type of clutch contains a hole through which an earring post is attached to secure the earring to the earlobe. The friction version has two curved wings that grasp a grooved post.

A jewelry item that is worn on the ear, often in both the ears, is known as earring. It can be attached in a variety of ways, including with clips or screw backs that grip the ear lobe or with wires that pass through it. Earrings are mainly worn by women but sometimes men also prefer it to wear especially on one ear. There are countless styles and types of earrings available for pierced as well as non-pierced ears.

Earring back
Earring back is a bead or disk that fits over an earring post and holds the earring securely in place, like a catch.

Emerald, a verity of mineral Beryl, is one of the most fascinating and beautiful gemstones available in various shades of green color. The name of this remarkable gemstone comes from Greek ‘Smaragdos’, meaning ‘Green Stone’. Deep green is the most desired color in emeralds. Its hardness makes it very tough and durable which comes in between 7.5 to 8 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Columbia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Afghanistan and USA. Flawless emeralds are very uncommon, and are noted for their great value, sometimes even more than diamonds.

Emerald Cut
Emerald Cut diamond or gemstone is a square or rectangular shape stone with cut corners. This is also known as Step Cut because it has rows of facets, usually 48 to 50, that resemble a staircase. Due to its larger, more open table, this shape highlights the clarity of a stone but with fewer facets, this shape brings less brilliance than the other shapes.

Engagement Ring
An engagement ring is a ring worn by a woman, which indicates her engagement to be married. A man presents this ring to a woman who accepts his marriage proposal.

Engraving is a method of surface decoration in which a design is etched or engraved with a sharp tool.

Enhance, Enhanced, Enhancement
Enhance or enhancement is the process to improve a diamond's or a gemstone's color or clarity by using various methods.

European Cut
A European version of ‘ideal’ cut which was used and preferred in Europe although it was never adopted as a common form of cutting. In this cut, stone‘s proportions were worked out mathematically for light falling perpendicularly on the crown.

Extra Facet
An additional facet placed onto a diamond or onto a gemstone, usually to remove a ‘natural’ or small surface blemish. This extra facet is not required by the cutting style and symmetry.

Eye is a loop or ring, made of wire or any other material, used as a connector for necklaces, pendants, etc.

Eye Clean
A term used in the jewelry industry to describe a diamond or a gemstone with no blemishes or inclusions that are visible to the unaided eye.

A term used for flat or plane surface that make up the exterior form of a crystal.

A plane, polished surface on a diamond or on a gemstone which allows light to enter in a stone and reflect off through different angles.

Faceted Girdle
A girdle of a stone that is lapped and polished for maximum surface reflection and has many flat planes around the circumference of the stone.

Fancy Shape
Any shape of a diamond or a gemstone other than the round brilliant shape is known as fancy cut or fancy shape. It includes marquise, emerald cut, heart shape, pear shape, etc.

Fancy Diamond
Fancy Diamond is a Diamond with strong natural body color other than light yellow or light brown. Colored or fancy diamonds are very rare and valuable and available in various colors like blue, pink, purple, red etc.

Feathers are small fractures in a stone caused by the tremendous stress that the stone suffered while it was growing underground. Under magnification, these small fractures appear very much like a feather.

The way surface of a piece is cleaned or polished or textured. Finish refers quality of polish and symmetry on a stone as well as polish or texture applied to the metal on an item of jewelry. Common metal finishes include florentine, high polish and matte or brushed.

Fire refers flashes of spectrum colors seen in a diamond or in a gemstone as the result of dispersion.

A stone with exceedingly shallow pavilion, which produces a glassy appearance and a noticeable dearth of brilliancy.

Flaw refers to any internal or external imperfection on a diamond or on a gemstone and usually includes feather, fissure, carbon spot, knot, etc.

Flawless is a term used for diamonds or other gemstones that are without any internal or external flaws when viewed by a trained eye under 10X magnification.

Florentine Finish
A Florentine finish is a crosshatched decorative technique engraved into the surface of a precious metal. It is usually applied by a hand tool and consists a series of parallel lines engraved in two directions perpendicular to each other. This finish reduces the reflectivity of metal and the lines are often coarser and more deeply incised than the brushed or matte finish methods.

Fluorescence An effect in many gemstones mainly in diamonds that makes them glows in ultraviolet rays or light. Stones can fluoresce in a number of colors mainly in blue and fluorescence ratings include none, faint, slight, medium, strong and very strong. Faint to medium fluorescence is rarely detected under most lighting conditions which include sunlight also whereas strong or very strong fluorescence may make a stone appear ‘milky’ or ‘oily’ in such lighting conditions. Fluorescence is not dangerous to the stone or to its wearer. It is a unique and fascinating quality that occurs naturally in a number of gems and minerals.

Four Cs
A phrase used to describe a diamond's value characteristics which cover the four well-known factors affecting the price of a diamond. All these factors start with the letter ‘C’: cut, color, clarity, and carat weight.

A breaking or chipping in a diamond or in a gemstone, which usually reached to its surface and that is not in the direction of a cleavage plane.

Fracture Filling
A diamond’s enhancement process in which cavity is filled in a diamond with an artificial substance like glass.

Freshwater Pearl
A freshwater pearl is an irregular shaped pearl that was harvested from a freshwater mussel (a mollusk). Usually these pearls are shaped like an uneven grain of rice, and are less valuable than oyster pearls. Biwa and Tennessee are the varieties of freshwater pearls.

Full Cut Brilliant
A full cut brilliant is a diamond or a gemstone usually with total of 58 facets, consisting of 32 facets and a table above the girdle and 24 facets and a culet below the girdle.

Gallery is metal strips used to make settings for gemstones or used as a decorative design element in a piece of jewelry.

Garnet, which belongs to mineral quartz, is a family of stones having many varieties differing in color and in their constituents. This name is derived from its resemblance in color and shape to the seeds of the pomegranate. Garnet Stones are available in varieties named Grossularite, Pyrope, Almandine, Rhodalite, Andradite, Essonite, Tsavorite, Spessartite, Melanite, Allochroite, Ouvarovite and Demantoid. The most common color of Garnets range from light red to violet, but can also be white, green, yellow, brown and black except blue. Its hardness in between 7.5 to 8 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Burma, Sri Lanka, South Africa, China, USA, Tanzania, Madagascar, India and Australia.

Any device or instrument which is used to calculate the weight of diamonds, by measuring or estimating physical dimensions like diameter, depth, length.

Gemological Institute of America (GIA)
Gemological Institute of America (GIA) was founded as non-profit organization in 1931 by Roger Shipley. GIA maintains the highest standards for grading diamonds and other precious gems and it has one of the world’s most-respected and well-regarded gemological laboratories. GIA has developed and standardize the diamond and gemstone grading system that is used by nearly all other gem labs.

A person with expertise in gemology is known as gemologist. There are many recognized courses available from various Gemological Institutes which offer study in gem identification, grading and pricing, as well as diamond grading and appraising.

A gemstone is a mineral or rock, which can be used in jewelry after cutting or faceting and polishing. Gemstones are diverse in their beauty and many gems are available in a stunning variety of colors. Most gemstones have little beauty in the rough state and they may look like ordinary rocks or pebbles in their rough form. After a skilled cutting and polishing of a gem, full color and luster can be seen. Gemstones are classified into two categories, precious and semi-precious, on the basis of their characteristics. Precious stones include diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires whereas semi precious stones are Alexandrite, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Citrine, Garnet, Iolite, Onyx, Opal, Pearl, Peridot, Tanzanite, Topaz, Tourmaline etc.

Girdle is the widest part or outer edge of a diamond or a gemstone and the dividing line between the crown and pavilion. The girdle can be rough (matt), faceted, polished or unpolished but a polished or faceted girdle doesn't improve a stone's grade. Most labs grade a girdle's thickness, not its appearance and the descriptions of girdle thickness range as follows: extremely thin; thin; medium; slightly thick; thick; extremely thick.

Girdle Facet
The 32 triangular facets that adjacent to the girdle on a brilliant cut or other stone and split into 16 upper (crown) girdle facets, and 16 lower (pavilion) girdle facets. Sometimes facets are placed directly on the girdle, in which case the diamond is usually said to have a ‘faceted girdle’.

Girdle Thickness
It is the measurement describing the percentage of the stone’s average girdle diameter. The girdle thickness ranges as follows: extremely thin; thin; medium; slightly thick; thick; extremely thick.

Gold is an extraordinary and rare precious metal, with an unmatched combination of chemical and physical properties. Gold is the most non-reactive of all metals and it does not oxidize under ordinary conditions. No other metal is as malleable as gold. Pure gold is very soft and pliable, and alloys of different other metals are combined with pure gold to enhance its durability and strength, as well as creating a blush in the gold’s appearance with different color tones. 24 karat is 100 % pure gold, and it is more expensive and less durable than gold that is alloyed with other metals.

Gold - 10 Karat (White Tone)
Gold which combines 10 parts of pure gold and 14 parts of other metal alloys and appears in white tone. Normally white gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

Gold - 10 Karat (Yellow Tone)
Gold which combines 10 parts of pure gold and 14 parts of other metal alloys and appears in natural yellow tone. By combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its strength.

Gold - 14 Karat (White Tone)
Gold which combines 14 parts of pure gold and 10 parts of other metal alloys and appears in white tone. As mentioned above, normally white gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

Gold - 14 Karat (Yellow Tone)
Gold which combines 14 parts of pure gold and 10 parts of other metal alloys and appears in natural yellow tone. As mentioned above, by combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its strength.

Gold - 18 Karat (White Tone)
Gold which combines 18 parts of pure gold and only 6 parts of other metal alloys and appears in white tone. As mentioned above, normally white gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

Gold - 18 Karat (Yellow Tone)
Gold which combines 18 parts of pure gold and only 6 parts of other metal alloys and appears in natural yellow tone. As mentioned above, by combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its strength.

Gold Plated
Gold Plated refers to a thin layer of plating of 10-karat gold or better which has been bonded to a base metal. The karat gold content may be less than 1/20, but it must be properly identified by weight in terms of total metal content.

Gold Standard
A monetary system in which currency can be redeemed or converted for a fixed amount of gold. The government or bank must have enough gold in reserve to redeem all its circulating currency.

Gold Tone
In its pure form, gold has a metallic luster with deep yellow in color, but when it is mixed or alloyed with other metals, such as silver, copper, zinc, nickel, platinum, palladium, etc. then it creates various color tones like white, pink/ rose, green and the seldom found blue, purple and black. It is sometimes called gold color.

Golden finish
Jewelry that does not contain actual gold but finished in such a manner that it has the look of gold jewelry item.

A person, who is an expert for working with precious metal to create jewelry.
Grade A recognized measure of an aspect of diamond’s or gemstone's quality, mainly clarity and color.

The process of evaluating a diamond or a gemstone, and allocating grades to it.

Grading Report
A grading report or certificate is a statement, issued by an independent Gemological Laboratory, that at the time of evaluation, the diamond or gemstone in question has been examined, measured, and scrutinized by experienced Graders, using various gemological instruments, and determined to contain the characteristics as stated in the Report or Certificate. The grading report should accurately describe the proportions, weight, color, clarity, symmetry, polish and possible fluorescence seen in the stone.

Diamond crystals have different strength bonds in different directions and these directions are known as grain. The term, grain is also an earliest known weight unit for gold in which one troy ounce contains 480 grains.

Grain Center
A small area of intense crystal structure distortion which usually associated with pinpoints.

Usually graining refers to internal irregular crystal growth which may appear milky like faint lines or streaks.

Gram is the basic unit of weight of the metric system and generally used to express the weight of jewelry items. One troy ounce contains 31.1035 grams.

A hallmark is an official mark (or a series of marks) stamped onto a precious metal that indicates the fineness of the metal and the manufacturer's mark. As well as sometimes hallmarks indicate the country and year of manufacturing.

Hand Made
Hand made jewelry is created completely by hand and only some hand tools are used for this.

The hardness of a gemstone refers it's resistance to scratching on a smooth surface. Moh's scale of hardness, which scale from 1 (very soft) to 10 (very hard), is useful for comparing the relative hardness of different gem materials. Diamond is the hardest known substance on Earth and it is graded 10 on Mohs’ scale of hardness. Hardness is directional in most gemstones.

Heart Cut
The Heart shaped diamond or gemstone is essentially a pear-shaped with a cleft at the top and which typically contains 59 facets. Due to the complexity of the shape, skilled cutting is necessary to maintain the stone’s brilliance. Generally people prefer a heart shape stone for sentimental purposes. This shape is mostly used in pendants, but also suitable for most jewelry items.

Hoop Earring
A circular-shaped earring for pierced ears, which look similar to a ring, goes in a loop from the front to back of the earlobe. It is usually made of metal tubing and this hollow tubing is permanently attached to the wire at the front of the ear, which slips into the tube at the back. These earrings are available in many variations that include hoops with charms and with other jewelry items to be hung from the hoop.

Hope diamond
The Hope Diamond is the world's largest deep blue diamond. It is famous for its striking color and infamous for its history of bringing bad luck to its owners. This attractive stone is also having a history of stolen and recovered, sold and resold, cut and recut. It is now on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington.

Hue is an aspect of color such as pink, yellow, blue, green, etc. It is a primary factor in viewing and grading fancy colored diamonds and gemstones.

Ideal Cut
Theoretically perfect cutting proportions and facet angles, calculated mathematically to produce maximum brilliancy consistent with a high degree of fire in a round brilliant cut gemstone. Ideal cut is also known as American Cut.

IGI (International Gemological Institute)
IGI (International Gemological Institute) is an organization which offers a grading report for diamonds and other gemstones. IGI has laboratories located throughout the world, including New York, Antwerp, Mumbai, Bangkok and Tokyo.

Imitation diamonds or gemstones can be anything that resembles a natural stone but does not have the same physical characteristics or chemical composition. These items are usually much less expensive than the natural forms. Imitation stones are often made of glass or plastic and most can be detected easily by a jeweler.

An imperfect diamond or gemstone contains any external blemish or internal inclusion or flaw that are visible to the unaided eye or that have a serious effect on the stone’s durability. The diamond imperfection grade at the low end of the ‘flawless-to-imperfect’ scale.

An internal imperfection or characteristic which reduces the clarity or brilliance of a diamond or gemstone. Common stone inclusions are feathers, crystals, fractures, needles, graining, pinpoints and cavities.

Internal Graining
A diamond or a gemstone which contains internal irregular crystal growth is known as internal graining. It may appear milky like faint lines or streaks.

Internally Flawless (IF)
A clarity grade which refers no inclusions and only insignificant surface blemishes.

Iron is a very common metallic element and mainly used to make steel. It usually appears dark brown in impure form whereas silvery-white in pure form. Pure iron is quite soft and it is oxidized (rusted) easily by moisture. The chemical symbol for iron is Fe.

Irradiated diamond
A diamond which has been exposed to radiation usually to improve its color.

Jade is a semiprecious stone, which is often used to describe jadeite and nephrite both as these two are similar in appearance and use. It is available in varieties of shades like green, light purple, yellow, pink, creamy white etc. Although this stone founds at many places but the best quality jade comes from Myanmar (formerly Burma). Jade is quite hard stone with 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale and used in many jewelry items.

Jewelry is a personal ornament, such as a ring, bracelet, necklace or any other item made from jewels, precious metals or any other material. The word jewelry is derived from the Latin word ‘Jocale’ means plaything. In present scenario the word Jewelry is used to describe any piece of precious metal or gemstone used to adorn oneself.

Jewelry Findings
Jewelry findings are basically components, materials and elements like clasps, pins, hooks, tabs etc that can be used in making or assembling a piece of jewelry.

Karat, Karat Weight
Karat is the American spelling of carat which is now only used for gold or gold alloys weight whereas English spelling carat is used in respect of weight of diamonds or other gemstones. Karat is always based on pure 24 karat gold and if a jewelry item contains 18 karat gold that means it has eighteen parts pure gold and six parts other metal alloys. Karat is also used in its abbreviated 'kt' form.

Kimberlite Rock
The yellow or blue rock which forms diamond pipes and in which most diamonds are found.

An included diamond crystal which reaches to the surface of a polished diamond. This knot is difficult to cut or polish because of twinning, negative crystal growth, or similar feature.

Kohinoor, Koh-i-noor
The name of Koh-i-noor means "Mountain of Light". It is an Oval Shaped Brilliant cut diamond with 108.93 carat weight. This diamond was presented to Queen Victoria in 1850 to mark the 250th anniversary of the founding of the East India Company. It is now on display with the British Crown Jewels in the Tower of London.

Lapidary is a skilled craftsman who cuts and polishes diamonds and gemstones to their finished state.

Laser Drill Hole
A tiny tube which is created in a diamond by laser drilling to treat a diamond. It is one of the few man-made inclusions that can occur inside a diamond. The surface opening may resemble a pit, while the tube usually looks needle like.

Laser Drilling
A diamond enhancement technique by a laser which is used to drill a diamond to remove inclusions. BY using this laser drilling technique, clarity grade of a diamond can be raised.

Light Brown
A diamond which is not intense enough to be considered as fancy brown and often appear quite white.

Light Yellow
A diamond with light yellow tint is considered as fancy yellow.

A locket is a small box or hinged case which can be opened and closed and generally contains a small photograph or other small item. These lockets are usually attached to chains and worn around the neck. Lockets are often made of precious metals and available in various shapes like heart, oval, circle etc.

Loose diamond
Loose diamond is an unmounted polished diamond.

Lost Wax Casting
This is one of the most commonly used casting techniques. Under this casting method, an object is made of wax and coated in clay. When the clay is fired, the wax melts and is drained away or evaporates leaving an exact impression of the object in the hardened clay, which is then filled with molten metal.

Loupe is a French word for magnifying glass. It is a small magnifying lens used to examine diamonds and gemstones. 10X magnification is the standard.

Lower Girdle Facet
A diamond facet on the pavilion of a round brilliant cut just below the girdle.

The quality of reflected and refracted light from the surface of a diamond or gemstone or pearl or metal. Luster is mainly dependent on stone's surface (polish) and the reflective index of the mineral. Luster can be described as: adamantine, pearly, greasy, metallic, silky, resinous, vitreous, earthy (also known as dull) and waxy.

Main Facets
The large crown and pavilion facets of a brilliant-cut diamond whereas on step-cut stone, the center row of facets on the pavilion.

Make is a trade term refers to the proportions, symmetry and polish of a diamond or a gemstone.

Marquise Cut
The Marquise Cut is a traditional shape having elongated ends at both edges. The pointed ends make this shape the most fragile and the most expensive of brilliant style cuts. It has a total of 56 facets and construction of facet requires a lot of experience and delicacy of the sharp points demands utmost precaution. Now-a-days this shape is very popular for engagement rings.

Matrix is a rock in which gemstones are found. It is also referred as the host rock or parent rock.

This term is used to describe small brilliant-cut diamonds under .20 carat. Generally, these small diamonds or gemstones are used to embellish mountings, setting or larger stones.

Metal is a solid mineral element that usually has a shiny surface and generally a good conductor of heat and electricity, and can be melted or fused, hammered into thin sheets, or drawn into wires. Common metals include bronze, copper and iron whereas gold, platinum and silver are considered as precious metals and used for making jewelry.

Metal Type
The type of metal that is used to create jewelry.

The unit of measurement, which is used to determine a pearl and gem's diameter, equal to about 0.04 inch.

A place where diamonds and other gemstones are extracted from the ground, by using various methods of mining like open cast, deep pit etc.

Mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic element of the Earth with a consistent atomic structure and chemical composition.

Mixed Cut
A mixed cut refers to a cut in which the style of the facets above and below the girdle are different. A standard mixed cut is brilliant cut above and step cut below.

The abbreviation for millimeter.

Modern Brilliant Cut
It is a round brilliant cut unless otherwise stated normally with 58 facets including the culet and polished using relatively modern theory. This shape is considered as ideal for a diamond because it maximizes a stone's sparkle and brilliance.

Modified Brilliant Cut
A cut in a shape or style other than round brilliant cut, such as oval, pear, marquise, heart, princess, radiant, or baguette.

Transparent silicon carbide, which is a rare crystal in nature, marketed as a diamond stimulant. It is named after Henri Moissan, famous French scientist. Its double refraction is one of the few differences with a diamond whereas thermal conductivity is almost equal.

Mold is the hollow form into which molten metal is poured to solidify and then ejected or broken out to get a fabricated jewelry part. It is made from a refractory material either for temporary use or for permanent use.

Diamonds are composed of large molecules or particles of carbon atoms with strong bonds in all planes.

Mother of Pearl
The iridescent lining of an oyster shell, often used as a nucleus for a cultured pearl.

Mother's Ring
A ring worn by a mother showing the birthstones of her children is known as mother’s ring. Sometimes this ring includes birthstones of mother and father also.

The process of making a ring or other piece of jewelry into which gemstones will be set.

A jewelry item containing several stones grouped together which creates the illusion of one large center stone.

Natural Gemstones
These have been formed in natural environment with no interference by human. They form in a variety of ways in many different environments from many different chemical compounds. By the time they appear in our jewelry they've been cut or polished, but they've not been treated or altered in other ways.

Natural pearl
A pearl that forms naturally, in an oyster, is known as natural pearl. When a grain of sand or other small object enters in the shell and the oyster is unable to eject the object then the oyster will coat the object with layers of nacre to form a pearl. There is no way to determine if an oyster contains a pearl, so to create a dependable pearl supply, the culturing process was invented.

A necklace is a jewelry item, which is worn around the neck. Necklaces come in numerous forms & styles and can be ornamented with pendants or lockets. Necklaces are mainly categorized by its size as well as its design and material, which include pearl necklace, choker, collar, princess necklace, matinee necklace, opera necklace, rope necklace etc.

A long, thin and sharp crystal inclusion which looks like a tiny rod.

A minor chip out of the surface of a diamond, usually found near or on the girdle of the stone.

A multipurpose hard, bright, silver-white metallic element of the iron group that is malleable, ductile and resistant to corrosion. It is most commonly used in alloys and plating.

An object or material which is not composed of metal.

Non-precious Metal
Non-precious metal is any metal that is not considered to be a precious metal.

Nose Stud
A nose stud is a simple style of jewelry that is worn through a piercing in the nostril and it contains single stone, pearl or metal ball on a straight post.

A flat and solid chain with close fitting rectangular links and worn high on the neck.

Onyx is a beautiful gemstone composed of chalcedony (a variety of quartz) and available in colors like black, white, black with white bands, red, brown etc. Onyx which is available in a red, brown or reddish brown color is known as Sardonyx. The bands that are found on this stone run parallel and are consistent. It is extremely similar to Agate, another variety of quartz. Agate bands are round or circular and are not consistent. Its hardness in between 6.5 to 7 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Madagascar, India, Brazil, United States, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

The name Opal is derived from three sources: Sanskrit ‘Upala’, Latin ‘Opalus’, and Greek ‘Opallios’. All three of these words mean the same thing – precious stone. Opal is made from sand and water. It has the same chemical formula as quartz with the addition of 3 to 10 % water content. This is a very popular gemstone, mainly due to its wonderful variety of rich and beautiful colors like black, white, gray, yellow, red, orange and colorless. High quality opals have an extraordinary feature of opalescence in which light reflects and bounces around the very small structures of the stone, giving it a wonderful aura and sometimes iridescence. The group of fine Opals includes quite a number of wonderful gemstones which are differentiated on the basis of the variety, place of occurrence, and color of the main body, into Dark or Black Opal, White or Light Opal, Milk or Crystal Opal, Boulder Opal, Opal Matrix, Mexican and Fire Opal. Its hardness in between 5 to 6.5 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Australia, Brazil, Mali, Japan, Russia, USA and Mexico. Australia is the major supplier of Fine Opals and almost 95 per cent of all Opals come from Australian mines.

Opaque refers to the transparency of a diamond or gemstone. Generally opaque stone does not transmit light as it is so thick with inclusions or flaws and due to that light is blocked from passing through the stone.

A very rare and attractive fancy color of diamond.

An ore is a group of rocks containing valuable minerals that can be extracted.

Organic Gem
Gemstones made by or derived from living organisms are known as organic gems. These include pearls from oysters, amber from tree resin etc.

A unit of weight. For precious metals, an ounce means a troy ounce which is equal to 31.1035 grams.

Oval Cut
The Oval Cut is a beautiful Fancy shape which offers great brilliance and fire through its 56 facets. This is an elongated version of round cut, provides the same brightness which comes from a round brilliant shaped diamond or gemstone.

Parcel is a packed paper envelop for diamonds which is purchased by buyer without selection of containing diamonds. Although sometimes buyer is permitted to reject a small number of diamond.

Past, Present and Future Collection
A collection of three stone jewelry representing the past, present and future of a relationship. It symbolizes the treasured past, the comforting present and the magical promise of the future.

Pave setting
An attractive style of jewelry setting in which numerous small stones are mounted as close together as possible to create a sparkly stone shell. The pave setting is very popular with diamonds and this setting style covers the whole piece of jewelry with diamond crust and conceals the metal under it.

Pavilion is the lower part of a diamond or gemstone, below the girdle.

Pavilion Angle
This is the angle between the main pavilion facets and the girdle. In a diamond, this is the most important dimension and ideal pavilion angle should be around 40.75° to 41°.

Pavilion Main Facet
The eight facets found on the pavilion of a round brilliant diamond.

Pear Cut
The Pear Cut is a fancy shape stone that looks like a teardrop due to its single point and rounded end with 56 to 58 facets. This shape is popular for its uniqueness and brilliance.

A Pearl is an organic gem, produced when certain mollusks, primarily oysters cover a foreign object with beautiful layers of nacre. A good sized Pearl can take between five to eight years to form, which is usually the entire life of the oyster or mollusk. There are two types of Pearls: Natural Pearls, formed inside wild oysters, practically impossible to find nowadays, and Cultured Pearls in which the production of the pearl is artificially induced. For producing cultured pearls, shell beads are placed inside an oyster and the oyster is returned to the water. When the pearls are later harvested, the oyster has covered the bead with layers of nacre. The finest Natural Pearls are fished almost exclusively from the Persian Gulf and the China Sea, while the best cultivated ones come from Japan, Korea and more recently Australia. Its hardness in between 2.5 to 4.5 on Mohs hardness scale and it should be handled with care. Pearls are usually white, sometimes with a creamy or pinkish tinge, but may be tinted with yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, or black. Pearls are available in different shapes: round, semi-round, button, drop, pear, oval, baroque, and ringed. Perfectly round Pearls are the rarest and most expensive. Fine Natural Pearls are much more expensive and rare to find than Cultured Pearls.

Pearl drop
A metal ring is attached to a real or imitate pearl which hangs from a piece of jewelry.
Pendant A pendant is a decorative ornament that hangs from jewelry items like necklace or earring. Pendants are generally made of precious stones and precious metals and often used to enhance the beauty of a necklace or an earring.

Peridot, a verity of mineral olivine, is a very old but still very popular gemstone. Peridot is formed deep within the earth under tremendous heat and pressure. The color of peridot is an integral part of its structure. Chemically peridot is an iron-magnesium-silicate and its intensity of the color depends upon the amount of iron contained by it. It is available in only one color shade with colors like yellow green, olive and brownish green. This gemstone is in fact identified by three names, Peridot, Chrysolith and Olivin. Its hardness in between 6.5 to 7 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Australia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, China, Burma, Arizona, USA, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Periodic Table
It is a tabular method to classify, systematize and compare all the 116 (94 natural, 22 synthetic) basic chemical elements.

The term pick is used when seller permits buyer to select one or more diamonds from a parcel.

Pierced Earrings
Earrings that are specifically designed for pierced ears. Piercing is done either in the earlobe or some other external part of an ear and a wire or post is inserted through the earlobe to that external part.

A pin is a type of fastener that contains small metal rod with a sharp point and generally used to attach a jewelry item on clothing.

Pink Diamond
Pink is one of the rarest and most desirable fancy colors for a diamond. Any diamond with pale reddish, purplish-red and purplish hue is known as pink diamond.

Pink Gold
Pink gold, also known as rose gold, is alloyed with copper, and at times possibly even with silver. The proportions are about three parts of 24-karat gold to one part of copper.

Tiny or very small inclusions, of pinpoint size, internal to a diamond. Whereas a cluster of pinpoints can form a cloud.

This term is used for vertical, columnar rocks that are originated due to lava flow and after that cooled and solidified in the neck of a volcano. When these rock masses consist of kimberlite, they often contain diamonds.

A tiny opening or surface mark on a diamond which often looks like a white dot.

Plating is the technique to cover or coat a thin layer of a metal to another metal surface mainly for the decorative purposes.

Platinum, an extremely rare and expensive metal, is a silvery gray precious metal often used for setting or mounting high quality diamonds and gemstones. Platinum is a strong, durable and dense metal which is valued for its white color and purity.

Platinum, an extremely rare and expensive metal, is a silvery gray precious metal often used for setting or mounting high quality diamonds and gemstones. Platinum is a strong, durable and dense metal which is valued for its white color and purity.

Plotting Diagram
A graphical representation or a diagram in a diamond certificate that illustrates the facets of a diamond as well as the approximate locations and types of internal and external characteristics. These characteristics can be spotted as internal and external by the different colors generally red and green.

Plumb Gold
It is a term used to describe gold jewelry that contains the precise amount of gold in the alloy that the karat mark indicates. A jewelry piece with 18kt plumb gold means that the gold will be at a minimum 18 parts gold mixed with 6 parts alloys.

A unit of measurement which is used to describe the weight of diamonds and other gemstones where one point is equivalent to one-hundredth of a carat. For example, a 1/2 carat diamond weighs 50 points.

Polish is considered as smoothness of the surface of a fashioned stone in which optical reflection is maximized. Generally a polished stone does not show visible wheel marks or burn marks under 10X magnification. Polish is an indicator of the quality of stone’s cut which is graded as Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor. In terms of metal, polish is considered as smoothness of the surface of a metal object in which optical reflection is maximized.

Polish Lines
Polish lines refer tiny or faint surface lines which are visible due to imperfect polishing or irregularities in crystal structure.

Polish Mark
A burn mark or surface clouding on a diamond caused by excessive heat while grinding or polishing.

Polished Girdle
A girdle that is polished or lapped to yield a lustrous and highly reflective surface.

The process of polish which converts a stone’s or metal's rough or irregular surface to a smooth surface by using various methods.

Porosity refers to the areas of the mold that absorbed some of the casting material and leaves the cast object with a rough, granular surface.

Precious Metal
A precious metal is a metal with rare metallic chemical element. Gold, platinum and silver are widely traded and considered as precious metals due to their rarity, beauty and physical properties. Precious metals are less reactive than most elements, have high luster, and have higher melting points than other metals.

Precious, Precious Stone
The term precious is used for stones as well as metal. Stones those are highly valuable for their hardness and rarity, are known as precious stones. Precious stones include diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires.

Price of a diamond or gemstone is extremely variable and based on all aspects of quality.

Princess Cut
The princess cut is a fancy shape gem which has pointed corners and square in shape. The ideal princess cut will have length to width ratio is as close to 1.00:1.00 as possible, as princess cut stones can range from this perfect square through to almost rectangular. This cut is the most popular non-round diamond cut.

Prong is a claw or wire used to fasten and hold a stone in a setting.

Prong Setting
Prong setting is the most frequently used method of setting diamonds or gemstones into jewelry. This setting usually consists of four or six small metal tips or claws to hold the stone tightly. This setting allows maximum amount of light to enter in a stone from all angles and because of this, stone appears more brilliant and larger than its actual size.

The consideration of each part of a diamond in relation to all other parts. Proportion is an important quality element which evaluates the overall shape of a diamond.

It is an equipment or tool for assessing, measuring and demonstrating the proportions of diamonds either individually or comparing them with ideal.

Purity is also known as clarity which describes the absence or presence of flaws inside or on the surface of a diamond or a gemstone. For diamonds, purity is graded on a scale from Flawless (no inclusions or blemishes visible under 10x magnification) to Included (eye visible inclusions or blemishes). Whereas for other colored gemstones, purity is classified into three ‘Types’. Type I colored stones include stones with very little or no inclusions, Type II colored stones include stones that often have a few inclusions whereas Type III colored stones include stones that usually always have inclusions.

Quartz is the most common mineral on earth. It is a crystalline mineral that comes in many forms.

Radiant Cut
The Radiant Cut is a fancy shaped rectangular or square stone with cut corners. This shape comes with 62 to 70 facets and offers the elegance of the emerald shape with the brilliance of the princess shape. Trimmed corners are the signature of this shape, and they help to make the radiant cut a popular and versatile choice for jewelry.

The term ratio is also known as length to width ratio which is a comparison of the length and width of the girdle outline on fancy shaped diamonds. It is used to analyze the outline of fancy shapes only and it is never applied to round diamonds. The ratio is found by dividing the length of the diamond by the width where diamond width is always stated as 1. This ratio is simply a matter of personal aesthetic preferences and there is no defined ideal ratio for any of the fancy shaped diamonds.

Red Diamond
One of the rare most and very desirable colors for diamond.

The term reflection is used for important optical effect where light bounces or returns once it strikes the surface of a diamond or a gemstone.

The term Refraction is also used for optical effect where light deviates or change its direction once it enters in a diamond or a gemstone.

Refractive Index (RI)
When light meets the surface of a polished diamond or gemstone, some of the light is reflected, whereas most is absorbed. This entered light in the gem slows down and is bent from its original path due to the difference of density between air and stone. This process is known as refraction. This refraction varies from gem to gem depending on density and can be measured and used to help identify the gem type. This measurement is known as refractive index (RI).

Refractometer is a device that is used to measure the refractive index of gemstones including diamonds.

Rhodium is a noble metal, from the platinum family, with a whitish gray appearance. Rhodium, in raw natural state, comes in liquid state and in jewelry industry, it is very popular plating metal which gives very smooth, shiny and expensive look, just like platinum, to a metal piece.

Rhodium Plating
In this process, rhodium is applied through the electroplating process to base metals like gold, sterling silver or some other metal alloy. This rhodium plating gives silver tone finish, which is darker than a silver plated finish and darkens with time rather than tarnishing like silver plate. Rhodium plating is virtually identical to Platinum but on a fraction of the cost and often it is used on fashion rings and brooches.

A ring is a circular band worn on the finger. Ring is the most popular and used jewelry item in the world. In most cultures, rings are worn as an emblem of engagement or wedding whereas in some cultures it is worn for the religious purposes also. Rings are available in wide range of styles and designs, which can be worn on any finger. Rings are mainly made of precious metal with gemstones attached to them but they can also be made of any material like plastic, wood, bone, glass etc.

Ring adjustor
Ring adjustor is a type of jewelry finding which is made and used to temporarily reduce the inside diameter of a ring.

Ring Size
Ring size is a measurement of how large the ring needs to be to fit on a person's finger. The average ring size for women is 6 and for men is 10.

Rope Chain
A style of chain with a series of small oval shaped links that are arranged in such a manner that they resemble a rope.

The term rough is used for any uncut or unpolished diamond or gemstone.

Rough Girdle
A grainy, pitted or uneven girdle surface, often with nicks.

Round Brilliant cut
The round brilliant cut is one of the most traditional and popular shapes. It has 58 facets which offer great brilliance and stability. These 58 facets include 1 table, 8 bezel facets, 8 star facets, 16 upper-girdle facets on the crown, 8 pavilion facets, 16 lower-girdle facets, and usually a culet on the pavilion, or at bottom. This cut is considered as ideal for a diamond because it maximizes a stone's sparkle.

Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum and known for its magnificent color, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. Only red corundum is entitled to be called ruby, all other colors being classified as sapphires. This stone is available in colors like bright red, brownish-red, purplish-red, dark red and blood red. The name ‘Ruby’ comes from Latin ‘Rubens’ which means ‘Red’. In Sanskrit, the ruby is called ‘Ratnaraj’, means ‘the king of precious stones’. This gemstone has excellent luster, rarity and durability. Its hardness is 9 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. Transparent rubies of large sizes are even rarer than diamonds.

Sapphire is a verity of the mineral corundum and represents all the colors except red corundum, which is ruby. Its physical and chemical properties are virtually similar to properties of ruby. Blue is the main color of the sapphire whereas this gemstone is also found in colors like yellow, green, orange, pink, gray, colorless, black, brown, and purple. The word ‘Sapphire’ in its plain context refers only to blue sapphire, unless a prefix color is specified. Sapphire is one of the most desirable gems due to its color, hardness, durability, and luster. Its hardness is 9 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Australia, India, Brazil and Africa.

Satin Finish
Satin finish is a texture of a metal surface that is in between matte finish and a brilliant one. In this finish, a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched onto a metal surface with a wire brush or polishing tool to produce texture. This finish gives impression of a soft, pearl-like luster instead of a bright polish.

A color's position in a diamond or in a gemstone on a neutral to vivid scale.

This term refers to the display of sparkle or reflection from the polished facets of a diamond visible when the observer is in motion.

A technique of using a tool to engrave a groove or furrow into the flat surface of the metal.

Scratch is a narrow, shallow, elongated nick on the surface of a diamond which usually appears as faint white lines, curved or straight, under magnification

Semi Precious, Semi Precious Stone
Stones those are valued for their beauty and not covered under any one of the four ‘Precious Stones’, Diamond, Emerald, Ruby or Sapphire, are known as semi precious stones. Semi precious stones are available in all price ranges from low priced to high priced. Semi precious stones are Alexandrite, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Citrine, Garnet, Iolite, Onyx, Opal, Pearl, Peridot, Tanzanite, Topaz, Tourmaline etc.

Setting is the process of fixing a diamond or other gem into a mount to create a piece of jewelry.

A diamond or a gemstone cut by Shape describes the outline of the stone and pattern of the facet arrangement. stones are available in various shapes like Modern Round Brilliant, Emerald, Princess, Heart, Oval, Pear etc. Round brilliant is the most popular shape for all jewelry items. All other non-round shapes are called fancy shapes.

Silver has been known and used for thousands of years and it is considered as one of the three precious metals along with gold and platinum. Pure silver is very soft metal with its lustrous white color. Silver is used as jewelry metal well before the development of white gold alloys, and before platinum could be isolated. It is normally stable in pure air and water but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide or sulfur. The chemical symbol for silver is Ag.

Silver - Sterling
A mixture of 92.5% of pure silver and 7.5% of copper is known as Sterling Silver. Pure silver is alloyed with copper to give strength and durability. It is one of the most familiar and used forms of silver alloys.

Silver Finish
Jewelry or any other item that does not contain actual silver but finished in such a manner that it has the look of silver jewelry item.
Silver Plating Silver plating is a method of depositing a silver layer on other metal surface mainly for decorative purposes on household and jewelry items.

Single Cut
A very small round stone with only 17 or 18 facets, instead of the normal 57 or 58 facets of a full cut round brilliant. These facets include 8 bezel, 8 pavilions, a table and sometimes a culet facet.

Slight Inclusions,SI, SI1, SI2
Slightly Inclusion is clarity grade that refers slight inclusions in a diamond which are easily visible under 10X magnifications. It is graded as SI1 and SI2.
Snake Chain This chain gives smooth scaly texture like snake skin as small round metal rings are closely secured together forming a flexible tube.

Soldering is a technique, used by jewelers, in making and repairing jewelry. By using this technique, two or more metal pieces are joined by applying a molten metal or metal alloy that has a lower melting point than the two metals being joined. This molten metal forms a bond when cooled and solidified. Soldering is also used in adding findings or links in a metal piece.

Solitaire ring is a ring with single gemstone often a diamond and does not contain side stones or any other gem embellishment. This ring looks exceptional with a high quality and larger sized diamond. Prong setting is the most popular setting type, but the size and number of the prongs can vary to highlight the look and features of the stone. Solitaire ring is mainly used as an engagement ring and exhibits beauty and elegance through its single quality gemstone.

Sort, Sorting
Usually this term is used to classify rough diamonds into groups depending on their size, color, surrounding material where as in case of polished diamonds it is used classify into grades depending on size, color, clarity.

Sparkle is the combination of gemstone’s fire and brilliance.

Specific Gravity
Specific gravity of a gem is an indication of its density. It is calculated by comparing the gemstone's weight with the weight of an equal volume of water. The greater the specific gravity of a gem, the heavier it will feel.

Stainless steel
An extremely durable metal alloy of steel and chromium that can be polished to resemble a precious metal and is almost unaffected to rust, discoloration and corrosion.

Stamping is the process of cutting or embossing a mark on metal sheet with a punch or a die.

Star Facet
The eight triangular facets that surround the table facet of a round, brilliant-cut diamond. It is named star facets because they from an eight pointed star when viewed from above.

Step Cut
Step cut is a style of faceting arrangements which is named because of its broad, flat planes that resemble stair steps. In this style of arrangement, there are three concentric rows of facets arranged around the table and, on the pavilion, there are three concentric rows arranged around the culet.

A general word for any gemstone including diamond.

Stud Earrings
A small, usually round earring with a single stone or metal ball on a straight post worn on pierced ears.

Surface Graining
Surface graining is an indication of structural irregularity in a diamond. Usually parallel lines are visible on the surface or facet edges which look similar to grain in wood. These grain lines reflect due to imperfect polishing.

Swage is a technique which uses a tool or hammer to bend or shape a metal available in solid state.

Symmetry is an important aspect of the stone cutting process which refers to the balance of the outline shape and alignment of the facets. It is graded as Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor.

A synthetic diamond or gemstone shares a natural stone's physical, chemical and optical qualities, but it is created in a laboratory. Some modern synthetic stones look more natural and are more difficult to identify, but an experienced jeweler or gemologist can usually detect them.

Table is the largest and flat facet which is placed on top of a diamond or a gemstone. Most of the light enters and exits from this part of a stone.

Table Percentage
The table percentage is a comparison of the diameter of the table facet to the diameter of the entire gemstone.

Tanzanite is a blue variety of the gemstone zoisite and named after the East African state of Tanzania, the only place in the world where it has been found. It is a trichroic gem which displays three layers of color. The colors dark blue, green-yellow and red-purple can be seen. Tanzanite is a beautiful gemstone, known for its brilliance but on the other hand it is a delicate gemstone which comes in between 6 to 7 on Mohs hardness scale.

A dull metal finish or luster due to its exposure to air or dirt that discolors the surface of metal as well as due to reaction between metals and other chemicals which discolors the surface, particularly silver which reacts with sulfur. Tarnish is a form of corrosion.

Tension Setting
A method of setting diamonds and other gems using only the springiness of the mount to hold the stone firm. Although it look quite spectacular but very unsafe and it should be avoided.

Three Stone Diamond Ring
This ring holds three diamonds of the same quality and shape representing the past, present and future of a relationship. Usually the center stone is slightly larger than the other two side stones.

A silvery metallic element with a low melting point and resistant to corrosion, which is often used as soldering material and alloy for other precious metals. The chemical symbol for tin is Sn.

Titanium is an ultra-light but very strong and hypoallergenic metal comes in silvery color. In jewelry industry, it is generally used for wedding bands and watches.

Tola is a unit of weight mainly used in India which is equal to 180 grains or 0.375 troy ounce or 11.7 grams. Usually gold bars are measured in tolas and the most popular of which is the 10-tola cast bar (3.75 troy oz).

An attribute of color which determines its lightness or darkness of shading and important in grading fancy colored diamonds and other gemstones.

Topaz, a member of quartz family, is a beautiful gemstone that most commonly found in yellow color. It is also available in various other colors like blue, brown, green, orange, pink, red, white, gold, colorless etc. The name topaz is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Tapas’, meaning ‘Fire’. Topaz, with 8 on Mohs hardness scale, is considered tough and durable gemstone but still it is not an invincible stone. It cracks and chips easily than many other gemstones. It is mainly found in Brazil, Sri Lanka, Burma, Nigeria, USA, Australia, Madagascar and Mexico.

Tourmalines are gemstones with deep brilliance and an incomparable variety of colors like black, red, pink, blue, green, grey and yellow. These Gemstones are mixed crystals of aluminium boron silicate with a complex and changing composition. The name tourmaline comes from the Singhalese words 'tura mali', means something like 'stone with mixed colors'. Tourmalines with different colors have different names. It comes in between 7 to 7.5 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Brazil, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Pakistan, Afghanistan and USA.

Transparent, Transparency
Transparent is used to describe stones that are clear and transmit light without any diffusion so that objects can be seen through the stones. Ideally, a diamond should be completely transparent and any opacity is undesirable.

Treated Diamond, Treatment
Treated diamonds or gemstones are those which have been processed in some way to enhance their color or clarity. A number of treatment techniques are used to improve the color and appearance of natural and synthetic diamonds and gemstones. Heat treatment is the oldest method whereas other techniques include bleaching, dying, laser drilling, fracture filling, high pressure high temperature (HPHT), annealing, irradiation, and surface coloration.

Trichoric refers to a gemstone that displays three different colors or shades when viewed from different angles or directions.

In jewelry industry, Tungsten is a fairly new metal which often used for wedding bands. It is four times harder than titanium and resistant to corrosion.

Twinning refers to two or more mineral crystals that have grown together in a symmetrical nature and crystal growth direction of one crystal has changed or a negative crystal growth has taken place.

A piece of jewelry that either uses both white and yellow metals or uses two different tones of same metal.

Ultrasonic Cleaner
Ultrasonic Cleaner is a tool, generally used by jewelers, to clean jewelry effectively. The ultrasonic vibrations help to free most types of dirt, grime, and oils from these jewelry items. Some ultrasonic cleaners come with a heating unit also.

Upper Girdle Facet
Upper Girdle Facet is any of the sixteen facets on the crown, adjoining the girdle of a diamond.

Vacuum Coating
A coating process in which an extremely thin metallic coating is applied generally on very inexpensive metals, by volatilization within a vacuum.

Vermeil refers to gold plating, with at least 10-karat gold, onto the surface of sterling silver. The finishing looks are very similar to pure gold jewelry and very hard to differentiate.

Very Slight Inclusions,VS, VS1, VS2
It is a clarity grade that refers minor or slight inclusions in a diamond which are difficult to see under 10X magnifications. It is graded as VS1 and VS2.

Very Very Slight Inclusions,VVS,VVS1,VVS2
It is a clarity grade that refers tiny or very slight inclusions in a diamond which are extremely difficult to find, even under 10X magnifications. It is graded as VVS1 and VVS2.

The term vivid is used for color grading of fancy colored diamonds to denote the most intensely colored stones.

Wedding Ring
A wedding ring is a ring presented to spouse on a marriage ceremony to exhibit marital commitment. This ring symbolizes marriage and is generally made of precious metals like gold, platinum and precious stones mainly diamonds. Wedding ring is one of the most popular and demanded jewelry items and these days, it is used in most cultures of the world.

White Diamond
White diamonds are transparent or colorless and promoted as the best, but only because other attractive colors are extremely rare.

White Metal
White metal, also known as pot metal, is a mixture of alloys which do not contain any precious metal.

Wisp refers to a type of inclusion which occurs due to twinning or in other words it is an irregularity in the crystal growth.

Yellow Diamond
Generally most diamonds contain nitrogen which gives them a slight yellow tinge. But diamonds with more intense yellow hue are considered as fancy colored diamonds which make them rare and valuable.

Yellow Gold
Yellow gold is the most frequently seen and a timeless color. It is usually alloyed with silver and copper. Depending on the karat gold (14K, 18K or 22K), the color of yellow gold may vary from a softer shimmering yellow to a bright rich yellow. This is due to the varying alloy combinations. The color contrast of yellow gold is most suitable to diamonds and other delicately colored gemstones, as they can appear brilliant and vivid.

Zinc is a lustrous bluish-white metal from the magnesium-cadmium group and generally alloyed with other precious metals. This metal is also used for coating iron and steel to protect against rust. The chemical symbol for zinc is Zn.

Zirconia, Cubic
Man-made material, created in 1977, usually shaped to look similar in appearance to a diamond. It is generally called a "fake" diamond and is much less costly than a diamond.